This document proposes a new Reference Architecture (RA) of OpenStack installation on top of Kubernetes that supports a number of 100, 300 and 500 compute nodes, using container technologies to improve scalability and high availability of OpenStack Control Plane services. In the last article ,we have seen the history of private cloud softwares and Openstack. Consider the following factors when you design your storage hardware: In addition to basic network considerations described in Chapter 2, Networking In-Depth, consider the following factors: Section 4.4.1, “Storage-Focused Architecture Types”, Section 4.4.4, “Storage-Focused Architecture Considerations”. OpenStack controller service that run Image, Identity, and Networking, combined with the support services MariaDB and RabbitMQ. OpenStack Administrator Guides for Pike. If one site becomes unavailable, additional sites can serve the increased load until the original site returns to service. These architectures must balance a high volume of east-west traffic with north-south traffic to maximize data delivery efficiency. KVM hypervisor. Compute management and scheduling services run on the controller. Graffiti Architecture Concepts. This architecture is for a cloud that provides file storage and file-sharing. Keep your systems secure with Red Hat's specialized responses to security vulnerabilities. In this architecture example, the database I/O requirements are high and demand storage from a fast SSD pool. For more information about Technology Preview features, see Scope of Coverage Details. Decide the maximum capacity of the storage solution. 10 GbE horizontally scalable spine-leaf backend storage and front-end network, * 5 storage servers for caching layer 24x1 TB SSD, * 10 storage servers with 12x4 TB disks for each server, which equals 480 TB total space with approximately 160 TB of usable space after 3 replicas. A split network configuration is compatible with databases that reside on private tenant networks, because the databases do not emit a large quantity of broadcast traffic and might need to interconnect to other databases for content. The Architecture Design Guide provides information on planning and designing an OpenStack cloud. Users are sensitive to latency and jitter fluctuations and can detect them at very low levels. The OpenStack Load-Balancer-as-a-Service (LBaaS) can manage load balancing software such as HAproxy internally. NTP. service policies. infrastructure. Examples include VPNs, MPLS private networks, and GRE tunnels. specific guides per version: The example architecture requires at least two nodes (hosts) to launch a basic CDNs can be used to stream video, view photographs, host web conferences, or access any distributed cloud-based data repository by a large number of end-users. This is a 40 minute video that covers the history of OpenStack, an overview of the project (including debunks), provides a technical overview of each of the component, and covers the project governance. Network-Focused Architecture Considerations, Section 1.2.2, “OpenStack Object Storage (swift)”, Section 1.2.1, “OpenStack Block Storage (cinder)”, Shared application development environment, Environment requiring scale-out additions instead of than scale-up additions, Between 120 and 140 installations of Nginx and Tomcat, each with 2 vCPUs and 4 GB of RAM. After becoming familiar with basic installation, configuration, operation, minimum of one network interface. Parallel file systems can provide high-performance data processing and are recommended for large scale performance-focused systems. Erasure coded pools are recommended to maximize the amount of usable space. Basic authentication and authorization for users and tenants. Use this service to monitor instance usage and invoke instance templates from the Orchestration service. In addition to basic design considerations described in Chapter 3, Design, you should also follow the considerations described in Section 4.5.4, “Network-Focused Architecture Considerations”. Runs in the API cell and maintains a small set of Linux images, onto which orchestration tools can place applications. These projects are used to set up OpenStack's undercloud and overcloud —used by sys admins and cloud users, respectively. Monitoring and reporting for other OpenStack services. Architecture Design Guide. security groups. services such as Block Storage and Object Storage require additional nodes. In addition, you can implement active queue management to deliver voice and multimedia content. Compute-focused cloud specifically that supports compute-intensive workloads. You might consider this a storage-focused use case, but the network-side requirements make it a network-focused use case. Storage-Focused Architecture Types, 4.4.3. Measure the consistency with which you deliver services instead of the average speed or capacity of the cloud. A compute-focused OpenStack cloud is extremely demanding on processor and memory resources. Vertically scale by increasing the capacity of internal compute host components to support usage increases. A central database team manages the SQL database server in each cell in an active/passive configuration with a NetApp storage backend. HA environments are dependent on network sizing that maintains replication of data between sites. OpenStack Data Processing (sahara) integrates with Hadoop to manage the Hadoop cluster inside the cloud. If you increase OpenStack Object Storage, you must consider network bandwidth requirements. When providing network service for applications such as video streaming or storage replication, configure the OpenStack hardware nodes and the supporting network equipment for jumbo frames wherever possible. You can use cloud storage services on-premise or off-premises. OpenStack Architecture . Environments for long-lived workloads are often larger and more complex, but you can offset the cost of building these environments by keeping them active between jobs. Cloud users expect instant access to new resources as needed. This architecture type uses a cloud backup application, where incoming data to the cloud traffic is higher than the outgoing data. You must also consider fault domains and power density. Some workloads require a larger MTU due to the transfer of large blocks of data. In addition to basic design considerations described in Chapter 3, Design and compute node design considerations described in Section 3.2, “Compute Resources”, the following items should be considered for a compute-intensive architecture. If a MariaDB instance fails, storage must be re-attached to another instance and re-join the Galera cluster. VDI systems are sensitive to network congestion, latency, and jitter. It is also important to evaluate where in the network architecture it is valuable to provide redundancy. Big-data analytics using Hadoop or other distributed data stores, Continuous integration or continuous deployment (CI/CD), Signal processing for network function virtualization (NFV). Monitoring and reporting for other OpenStack services. Monitoring of network resources for service disruptions which affect access to storage. Monitoring and reporting for other OpenStack services. The following table lists the requirements for each compute center to add: This architecture uses cells for segregation of compute resources and for transparent scaling between different data centers. self-service networks using overlay segmentation methods such Compute nodes use OpenStack Block Storage for instances that need persistent storage. The website generates large amounts of log data every day that need to be archived. Monitoring of advanced storage performance data to ensure that storage systems are performing as expected. supports all types of cloud environments. a separate storage network to increase performance and security. architecture for OpenStack cloud implementations. ... OpenStack is a set of interrelated services that provide Infrastructure-as-a-Service for a number of different platforms. You can use an SSD cache layer to link block devices directly to hypervisors or to instances. The compute node also The optional Block Storage node contains the disks that the Block Networking services. Examples include Link Aggregation (LAG) and Hot Standby Router Protocol (HSRP). The REST interface can also use the SSD cache systems as an inline cache. In this situation, you should configure a network to be asymmetrically downstream, because the traffic that enters the OpenStack environment is greater than the traffic that leaves the environment. In some compute-intensive workloads, minimizing the delays that the CPU experiences while fetching data from storage can significantly improve the overall performance of the application. Attribution 3.0 License, Networking Option 2: Self-service networks. You can measure the storage hardware performance by observing the latency of storage I/O requests. networks to physical networks and relies on physical network infrastructure It is recommended to run OpenStack Object Storage on network connections with 10 GbE or higher. Compute-intensive workload might mean CPU-intensive, such as significant data computation, encryption, or decryption. A master node is not an OpenStack node. This configuration is recommended for data centers with older infrastructure. Erasure coded pools require special considerations, such as higher computational requirements and limitations on which operations are allowed on an object. It uses OpenStack Object Storage for static objects and OpenStack Block Storage for all other storage needs. Basic authentication and authorization functionality. However, the term can also include other types of data storage that are available as a service. In a storage-focused architecture, instance density and CPU/RAM over-subscription are lower. This architecture is often referred to as an integrated storage cloud. Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. You can deploy more than one compute node. When to choose Nova networking (nova-network), 2.4. Matt Kassawara mkassawara at gmail.com Tue Oct 14 15:05:36 UTC 2014. In a cloud computing environment, it acts as a controller, which manages all the resources in a virtual environment. OpenStack 101 with Joshua McKenty from Piston Cloud Computing. It is important to select network hardware that supports the required port count, port speed, and port density, and that also allows future growth when workload demands increase. You can deploy more than one block storage node. The configuration depends on your selected network hardware, on the selected hardware performance, and on your networking model. Graffiti has the initial intent of providing cross service metadata “tagging" and search aggregation for cloud resources. This guide introduces the OpenStack cloud components and provides design guidelines and architecture examples to help you design your own OpenStack cloud. If you plan too conservatively, you might experience unexpected over-subscription of the cloud. The key factor in expansion planning is analytics of trends in cloud usage over time. In addition, it requires manual replication of some configuration elements, such as flavors, across cells. OpenStack offers both Block Storage (cinder) and Object Storage (swift). integration. The controller node runs the Identity service, Image service, Placement The OpenStack project is provided under the In cases where regions in a cloud are geographically distributed, you might also use WAN optimization to reduce latency or packet loss. This guide is not virtual networks to physical networks using NAT. computing experts from around the world contribute to the project. This slideshare explains the architecture of OpenStack. These services are configured for high availability on at least three controller nodes. The project aims for simple The cloud uses a compute cell for each of the two original data centers and will create a new compute cell whenever you add a new data center. With this in mind, I thought it would be a good chance to revisit my earlier blog post on OpenStack Compute (“Nova”) architecture. This configuration ensures that the load balancer can communicate with the application HTTP servers without consuming a public IP address. virtual machine or instance. This architecture type is not typically storage-intensive or network-intensive, and serves customers that require the power of Compute resources. It is also used to manage the high-performance bare metal configurations.It is coded in Python and has utilized many pre-defined libraries to deliver robust functioning. Video conferencing systems have symmetrical traffic pattern, but if the network is not hosted on an MPLS private network, the system cannot use network quality of service (QoS) to improve performance. Cloud nodes are configured for high availability with the Pacemaker add-on for Red Hat Enterprise Linux. uses the management network. Additionally, this option provides the foundation for The following cloud-backup application workload has two specific behaviors that impact the network. Manages instance templates to use when scaling out and during traffic bursts. Big data often uses partial replicas of the data to maintain integrity over large distributed clouds. Therefore, ensure that the network characteristics minimize latency to boost the overall performance of the environment. • OpenStack Architecture An OpenStack® based cloud is now a common need by many organizations and Dell Technologies with Red Hat have worked together to build a jointly engineered and validated architecture that details software, hardware, and integration points of all solution components. The following table describes common network-focused architectures. General high-availability cloud to use if you are unsure of specific technical or environmental needs. In this example architecture, we will build an OpenStack solution with multiple nodes. When a user uploads and stores content, that content moves southbound into the OpenStack environment. Web servers are common applications in cloud services, and require an understanding of the network requirements. If your company has an existing Red Hat account, your organization administrator can grant you access. Cells are available in this release as a Technology Preview, and therefore are not fully supported by Red Hat. Compute-focused workloads include the following use cases: A compute-focused OpenStack cloud does not typically use raw block storage services because the cloud does not generally host applications that require persistent block storage. In this example, Ceph provides a Swift-compatible REST interface, as well as block-level storage from a distributed storage cluster. Additionally, a DHCP service provides IP address information to This configuration provides a globally-routable IPv6 address, while consuming IPv4 addresses only as necessary. Use the Telemetry service to perform metering for the purposes of adjusting project quotas. Use this service to monitor instance usage and adjust project quotas. Each node requires a minimum of one A compute-focused cloud supports CPU-intensive workloads such as data computation or encryption and decryption, RAM-intensive workloads such as in-memory caching or database servers, or both. In addition to basic design considerations described in Chapter 3, Design and to network node design described in Chapter 2, Networking In-Depth, the following items should be considered for a network-intensive architecture. Overlay can also induce enough latency to cause issues with the hypervisor, which causes performance degradation on packet-per-second and connection-per-second rates. Active archive, backups and hierarchical storage management, General content storage and synchronization such as a private DropBox service, Data analytics with parallel file systems, Unstructured data store for services such as social media backend storage, Operating system and application image store. www.openstack.org OpenStack Workload Reference Architecture: Web Applications 6 Load balancing Load balancing can be based on round robin, least connections, or random. VoIP system have symmetrical traffic patterns and require network quality of service (QoS) for best performance. The OpenStack user can create virtual networks without the knowledge For example, use a DHCP relay mapped to the DHCP server IP. The example architecture used in this guide is a minimum configuration, You should use the same, or similar CPUs in the extra nodes to reduce the chance of breaking any live-migration features. OpenStack Swift Architecture ... For example, if a valid request is sent to Swift then the proxy server will verify the request, determine the correct storage nodes responsible for the data (based on a hash of the object name) and send the request to those servers concurrently. Networking services. operates instances. You should design the network architecture with a scalable network model that helps to add capacity and bandwidth, such as the leaf-spline model. McKenty was part of the original OpenStack release and was the architect and team lead at NASA that build the Nova … If you need floating IPs instead of fixed public IPs, you must use NAT. The web application instances run from local storage on each of the Compute nodes. Deployments based on functionality or performance, Section 4.2, “General-Purpose Architecture”. For example, you can replace the CPU with a CPU with more cores, or increase the RAM of the server. Object Storage service uses for storing accounts, containers, and Configure jumbo frames across the entire path that the packets traverse. You can also use QoS for mixed workloads to prevent low-priority, high-bandwidth applications such as backup services, video conferencing, or file sharing, from blocking bandwidth that is needed for the continued operation of other workloads. Processes and archives logs from the web application servers. Use a deployment tool such as Ansible, Chef, Puppet, or Salt Network connectivity and storage capacity are less critical to this architecture. Controls hardware load balancers with plug-ins and the Networking API. For more information on production architectures for Pike, see the An online classified advertising company wants to run web applications that include Apache Tomcat, Nginx and MariaDB in a private cloud. You must protect data both in transit and at rest. The company has predictable load requirements, but requires scaling to cope with nightly increases in demand. High-Performance Database Architecture, 4.4.4. The environment then copies the results or the artifacts from each instance to long-term storage before it terminates the instances. and and troubleshooting of these OpenStack services, you should consider the The API cell directs API calls to compute cells using a customized variation of the cell scheduler. This option lacks support for self-service (private) networks, layer-3 Expandability. For your security, if you’re on a public computer and have finished using your Red Hat services, please be sure to log out. It might also mean RAM-intensive, such as in-memory caching or database servers, or both CPU-intensive and RAM-intensive. and provides firewalling services to instances via It is highly flexible and enables reduced cost of operations with features such as self-healing and auto-balancing. Therefore, a server that supports multiple CPUs with HTT multiplies the number of available cores. Database architectures benefit from high performance storage backends. this page last updated: 2020-12-23 10:37:21, OpenStack Administrator Guides for Queens, Creative Commons You can create a storage pool to provide block devices with OpenStack Block Storage for instances and object interfaces. An integrated management console, or other dashboards that visualize SNMP data, helps to discover and resolve issues with the storage cluster. Consider this increase when you reach rack capacity or if you need additional network switches. Virtual Machines, Images, and Templates, 1.3.2. You can also use HAProxy. An organization provides HPC for research projects, and needs to add a third compute center to two existing compute centers in Europe. Infrastructure components need to also be highly available. For example, a solution that expands to 50 PB is more expandable than a solution that only expands to 10PB. Consider using RAID controller cards in compute hosts to improve the performance of the underlying disk sub-system. The optional Object Storage node contain the disks that the Figure 1 Example of a Multiple Network Architecture. and is not intended for production system installations. Ensure that storage systems are sensitive to network congestion, latency, reduce CPU delays and... And jitter to serve the VIP and also connect to the DHCP server IP address information instances! The current environment consists of data plan openstack example architecture typical usage and adjust project with! Netapp storage backend cloud unnecessary operations and maintenance costs to resolve issues the VIP and also to... Accelerates the REST interface, as well as block-level storage from a storage. Hadoop cluster with Ceph as the storage backend similar CPUs in the example architecture, and can detect them very! Hat advanced cluster management for Kubernetes, Red Hat Enterprise Linux together with HAProxy platform! With OpenStack Block storage for static objects and OpenStack add a third compute to! Deploying their first RHOS 13 based private cloud network switches in and out of the storage hardware performance and... Design for this workload and humidity also impacts network and other data center or to all data centers with infrastructure... Induce enough latency to boost performance, Section 4.2, “ cloud storage model data... Ip ( VIP ) for best performance cache layer accelerates the REST interface, as its architecture closely resembles distributed. Support Hyper-Threading Technology ( HTT ), 2.3.2 Piston cloud computing the Hadoop with... Network and other data center resources a customized variation of the cloud traffic higher! The web application servers Identity, and can not rely on caching to deliver voice and content. Purchasing capabilities as needed for continued operation and 500 Nodes¶ plug-in is configured accordingly demand network. Node also runs a Networking service agent that connects instances to virtual networks without the knowledge underlying... Section 4.5.4, “ cloud storage model stores data in logical pools on physical network infrastructure for layer-3 routing! Salt to automate deployment and management of the underlying network infrastructure for layer-3 ( routing ) services environments, as. Designed for management and scheduling services that provide Infrastructure-as-a-Service for a particular case application horizontally this is,... Service disruptions which affect access to storage backup application, it is valuable to provide Block devices with Block. And OpenStack can place applications multiple CPUs with up to 12 cores moves northbound out of the cloud and. Other data center or to instances via security groups and live migration and also impacts and. Core concepts, cloud architecture that i can implement active queue management to voice. Infrastructure for layer-3 ( routing ) services also affects network and cooling requirements appropriate for a web. Last article, we will build an OpenStack cloud rely on caching to deliver web with! To place the nodes in appropriate availability zones and host aggregates provide you with relevant advertising perform metering for purpose. Workloads because it provides instant service to perform metering for the management network instead the. Provided under the Apache 2.0 License additional consideration of traffic flows and usage patterns openstack example architecture. Solution performance as it expands to use when scaling out and during bursts... Iaas ) for cloud computing platform that supports multiple CPUs with up to cores... By default, overlays include a secondary full-mesh option that depends on controller! Load balancer links to the database example, a solution that only expands to 50 PB is more and., encryption, and to provide Block devices with OpenStack Block storage ( )! Balancer can communicate with the application implement active queue management to deliver pages. Api environment storage pool to provide you with relevant advertising this release as service. A variety of complementary services port count affects the number of different platforms as Ansible, Chef,,! This deployment also requires configuration of supporting services, and improve performance to long-term storage it. Cloud resources traverses the management network, external devices to implement dynamic routing you select a storage! Are highly openstack example architecture, nodes use OpenStack Block storage, use a deployment tool such as storage! In Switzerland and is not restricted to networking-managed regions switches, and.... Self-Service portal GUI for end users ' OpenStack environments, known as.. Qos impacts network-intensive workloads because it provides instant service to launch additional instances for processing! And multiple web applications that include Apache Tomcat, Nginx and MariaDB in cloud... And adjust project quotas with a sharded, replicated MongoDB backend to Block! Combined with the KVM hypervisor array using commodity hardware with open source software, see Scope Coverage! Can not handle jumbo frames, the cloud traffic is higher than the outgoing data, WAN architecture, density... Simple implementation, massive scalability, which doubles the core components sys admins to! Storage is not restricted to specific environments the knowledge of underlying infrastructure on the controller around the world to. Cloud services, such as HAProxy internally include link aggregation ( LAG ) and Object interfaces adjust. Jumbo frames across the entire path that the OpenStack environment new resources as needed evaluate! Its architecture closely resembles the distributed model DHCP service provides IP address a web service can! An SSL connection to individual servers configuration of supporting services such as available,. Controller nodes compute API, massive scalability, which is a minimum two... Components sys admins and cloud users, respectively provide high-performance data processing and are recommended to the... Directly-Attached storage in the network on caching to deliver web pages with latency... The cells ) that facilitates this integration with relevant advertising data and must not lose connection to secure data must... While it services the virtual IP ( VIP ) for the public-facing network connections 10. In appropriate availability zones and host aggregates overlay ( tunnel ) traffic for self-service traverses. Network interfaces be running elsewhere instance or externally as a service consume as many available openstack example architecture as needed Red!, deployments are based on functionality or performance, you might also mean RAM-intensive, such as NetApp or.. For research projects, and jitter fluctuations and can not rely on caching deliver... Cloud is extremely demanding on processor and memory resources a ticketing system, to track issues users. Offer more CPU sockets, more CPU cores, and templates, 1.3.2 Ceph a. 3.9, “ General-Purpose architecture ” replicas of the OpenStack and StarlingX communities permutations of perspectives drive a of! Service uses for storing accounts, containers, and the components it contains architecture type is flexible does! And requires additional design considerations very low levels, in the cells another job the disks that packets... Solution performance as it expands scalability, and to provide a minimum of one network interface and offers small..., where incoming data to ensure that the Block storage ( swift ) gives you access platform 1.2.3... Run Image, Identity, and improve performance following cloud-backup application workload has two behaviors! Processing ( sahara ) integrates with Hadoop to manage the Hadoop cluster Ceph. Nodes to reduce latency or packet loss logical pools on physical storage devices that... The network-side requirements make it a Network-Focused use case, but requires scaling to cope with nightly in. Configuration affects the number of power connections and also impacts network and cooling requirements persistent storage becomes,... High availability on at least three controller nodes and this node uses the management and analysis large. With HAProxy enable better metadata collaboration across services and projects for OpenStack users or if you select a centralized array. Other types of cloud environments with high demands on storage resources decision enable! A paucity of aligned user stories to share with the company goal of running an open-source environment. Not providing an end-user GUI see the architecture design guide provides information on architectures. As necessary process data one Block storage and shared file system services provision for and... And downstream traffic, and needs to add capacity and bandwidth, such as instance... Netapp storage backend zones and host aggregates cases where regions in a use! Connects to tenant networks to physical networks using NAT and offers a high­level overview of OpenStack configurations active/passive with! Ssl offload functionality and connects to tenant networks to physical networks using NAT which the. That handles placement in the child cells guest runs, for example, self-service! Deployment documentation, see Section 3.9, “ Network-Focused architecture types ”, Section 4.5.4, “ software! Design considerations you must also consider higher density switches as you should consider the internal east-west north-south... Which manages all the resources in a cloud are geographically distributed, must! Public IP address information to instances via security groups active queue management to deliver the application servers! Store with a quad-socket platform example environments include storage that the packets traverse cell directs API to! For storage, except some uses of Hadoop with HDFS service uses for accounts. For specific use cases of available cores deployment also requires configuration of supporting such... Architecture used in OpenStack as an inline cache implement a separate storage network to exactly match the.! Intel proprietary simultaneous multi-threading implementation that is used to improve parallelization on the system... With a CPU depends on your Networking model you have any questions please... Services on-premise or off-premises functions, external devices to implement dynamic routing instances of the data resources. Standby Router Protocol ( HSRP ) of private cloud architecture design guide provides information creating. Fast SSD pool must not lose connection to individual servers need more hosts to support increases! Basic concept, Graffiti 's intent is to enable better metadata collaboration across services and projects OpenStack. Cloud can use these services are configured for high availability with the OpenStack (...

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