Over-the-counter products Here, learn about expiration, risks, and more. and heart disease.Natural and home remedies to help cure and soothe a cough include stay hydrated, A propellant in the MDI carries the dose of medicine into the lungs. By blocking the chemical, anticholinergic bronchodilators cause the airways to relax and open. Treatments include bronchodilators and steroids. The higher the dose, the more likely it is that side effects may develop. Symptoms include wheezing, coughing, shortness of breath and difficulty breathing. What types of bronchodilators are available to treat asthma? Short-acting and long-acting bronchodilators treat various lung conditions and are available by prescription. supplied as tablets, capsules, elixir, and solution for injection. These drugs may improve contraction of the diaphragm (the major breathing muscle) … Serious allergic reactions involving the closure of the airways. Additional forms of bronchodilators include tablets and syrups. Nausea Acetylcholine is a chemical released by the nerves that can lead to tightening of the bronchial tubes. There are two types of asthma medications: long-term control with anti-inflammatory drugs and quick relief from bronchodilators. Specific xanthine agents. Lung function tests may also be used. Interacts with barbiturates, charcoal, hydantoins, ketoconazole, rifampin, nicotine, adrenergic agents, isoniazid, loop diuretics—decreased theophylline levels such as happens with use of theophylline. Key words: Xanthine derivatives, Asthma, Bronchodilators, Antibacterial activity, Acute to-xicity INTRODUCTION Asthma is a global health problem and its incidence is expected to increase throughout the world over the next decade, particularly, in the developing countries Methylxanthines are a unique class of drug that are derived from the purine base xanthine. difficulty breathing to breath better. Learn 10 signs your allergies are out of control. An allergy refers to a misguided reaction by our immune system in response to bodily contact with certain foreign substances. Avoiding cigarette smoking, practice good hygeine, stay away from crowds, and alerting your healthcare provider if you have a sinus infection or cold or cough that becomes worse. Xanthine bronchodilators (By mouth) Treats symptoms of asthma, emphysema, bronchitis, pneumonia, and other lung problems. A bronchodilator is a medication that relaxes and opens the airways, or bronchi, in the lungs. Therefore, the detection of these compounds is important, and it has been performed also using electrochemical biosensors. These symptoms may vary from individual to individual. Want More News? COPD is a pulmonary disorder caused by obstructions in the airways of the lungs leading to breathing problems. Xanthine Derivatives. are; 1) beta-adrenergic bronchodilators; 2) anticholinergic bronchodilators; and Prescription drugs that help cure a cough include narcotic medications, antibiotics, inhaled steroids, and anti-reflux drugs like proton pump inhibitors or PPIs, for example, omeprazole (Prilosec), rabeprazole (Aciphex), and pantoprazole (Protonix). Bronchodilators are a class of medication that relax the muscles surrounding the airways. h. For xanthine derivatives avoid foods that have xanthine like colas, coffee, chocolate and charcoal preparted foods. Background: Enprofylline is a new xanthine derivative that shares theophylline's bronchodilator properties but is free of theophylline's adenosine receptor antagonist activity. 4.1.3 Xanthine Oxidase-Based Biosensors. Three xanthines are pharmacologically important: caffeine, theophylline, and theobromine (Craig & Stitzel, 2004). It is created from hypoxanthine by xanthine oxidoreductase. For immunomodulators, be aware that an anaphylactic rxs can occur for up to a uear after doing! The bronchodilator effects of xanthines, determined from reversal of bronchoconstriction induced by aerosols of histamine and carbachol, correlated with their relative potencies as cyclic AMP-PDE inhibitors. Xanthine is found to be associated with Lesch-Nyhan syndrome and xanthinuria type 1, which are inborn errors of metabolism. Metered dose inhalers. The life expectancy of a person with COPD depends on the stage of the disease. are used for acute management of asthma episodes. Penicillins and penicillin type How do you prevent pet allergies? i. Dizziness Exposure to allergens found on farms may protect against asthma symptoms. 'Green Inhalers' Could Reduce Carbon Footprint: Study, Three-Drug Inhaler May Be an Advance for Asthma Patients, For Many With Mild Asthma, Popular Rx May Not Work: Study, First Generic Version of Advair Diskus Approved for Asthma, COPD, Does Fish Oil Help Control Asthma? Chronic cough is a cough that does not go away and is generally a symptom of another disorder such as See the 10 cities with the most polluted, unclean and smoggy air. Iodine Smoking is usually a factor. This class of bronchodilator causes the smooth muscles surrounding the airways to relax. Which foods can help patients with COPD? Respiratory diseases, such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), cause bronchospasm, which is constriction or narrowing of the airways. As with all medications, an allergic reaction is also possible with bronchodilators. The effects typically last for 12–24 hours, and people take them daily to prevent symptoms from developing. Bronchodilator actions of xanthine derivatives administered by inhalation inasthma. cigarette smoking, inhaled irritants, and underlying disease processes (such as asthma, or congestive heart failure). Xanthine is subsequently converted to uric acid by the action of the x Diarrhea Learn how a combination of medication, preventing allergens, and allergy relief products can reduce allergy symptoms and help you... Take this home allergy quiz and test your knowledge on allergens, dust mites, pollens and more to see how allergy-proof your home... Coughing is a reflex that helps a person clear their airways of irritants. ContactPCP if severe. Chemical Formula. Causes of emphysema include chronic cigarette smoking, exposure to secondhand smoke, air pollution, and in the underdeveloped parts of the world. The more you exercise, the better you'll feel with COPD. administered. Xanthine derivatives such as theophylline relax the smooth muscles of the bronchi and pulmonary blood vessels. are prescription products. Xanthine Derivative Bronchodilators: Precautions -Used cautiously in patients with cardiac disease, hypoxemia, hypertension, congestive heart failure, liver disease, patients older than 69 years of age - Aminophylline, dyphylline, oxtriphylline, and theophylline are … Long-acting beta-adrenergic Theophylline is excreted in. Overview of Drugs Affecting the Respiratory System • Bronchodilators – Xanthine derivatives – Beta-agonists • Anticholinergics • Antileukotriene agents • Corticosteroids (bronchospasm), or swelling of the lining of the airways. Taking a bronchodilator helps dilate or widen the airways, which makes it easier to breathe. 152. 2006;61(9):742-744. Common short-acting bronchodilators include: According to the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology, if a person needs fast-acting bronchodilators daily, they are not controlling their symptoms well and may need a long-acting bronchodilator. List of short-acting and long-acting bronchodilators, anticholinergic bronchodilators, and xanthine derivatives. Both types have a role in treating common lung diseases, such as asthma and emphysema. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) refers to a set of lung diseases that can lead to difficulty breathing. If you have a COPD such as emphysema, avoiding chronic bronchitis and colds is important to avoid a more severe respiratory infection such as pneumonia. medications like beta blockers and ACE inhibitors, the common cold, GERD, lung cancer, 22(3), 243–250 (1987). Effects of enprofylline, a xanthine lacking adenosine receptor antagonism, in patients with chronic obstructive lung disease.. People with lung conditions can work with their healthcare provider to determine if the benefits of bronchodilators outweigh the possible side effects. The slight solubility of the latter two limits their usefulness, but soluble double salts of either theobromine or theophylline can be formed with a number of compounds. Symptoms of emphysema include chronic cough, chest discomfort, breathlessness, and wheezing. Generally, the prognosis for a patient with asthma is good. Both beta 2-agonists and anticholinergic bronchodilators come in a short-acting and long-acting form. J. Med. are not considered effective by many doctors. ©1996-2020 MedicineNet, Inc. All rights reserved. Home nebulizers are an effective way to deliver medicine into the airways. Take this quiz to learn the three conditions that make up the pulmonary disease called... Asthma is a chronic disease of the airways of the lungs, which can be managed with proper treatment. Xanthines are These OTC drugs are best used with the guidance of a physician, as there may be side effects and the drugs may not be very effective. Common allergic disorders include hay fever, asthma, allergic eyes, allergic eczema, hives, and allergic shock. A dry powder inhaler does not have a propellant, and the bronchodilator is in powder form. Drug group: Xanthine derivatives; Common drugs: Common xanthine derivative bronchodilators include theophylline (e.g. Xanthine Derivative Bronchodilators: Interactions. There are many causes of an excessive or severe cough including irritants like cigarette and secondhand smoke, pollution, air fresheners, Adrenergic bronchodilators may cause nervousness, insomnia. Treatment may involve anti-inflammatory medications or bronchodilators. Symptoms include coughing, shortness of breath, chest tightness, wheezing, and fatigue while exercising. Cushley MJ, Holgate ST. (Dorland, 28th ed) A purine base found in most body tissues and fluids, certain plants, and some urinary calculi. The device releases the medicine when a ... Nebulizer. Eur. Bronchodilators are used for treating: Asthma is a breathing problem resulting from narrowing of the airways that Triggered by two main... What happens within the body when a person develops bronchitis? A complete guide to home nebulizer therapy, Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), albuterol (ProAir HFA, Ventolin HFA, Proventil HFA). MNT is the registered trade mark of Healthline Media. Insulin Theophylline (10 mg/ml), glycine theophyllinate (50 mg/ml), theophyllineethylenediamine (aminophylline 50 mg/ml), and diprophylline … The usual treatment for occupational asthma involves removal from exposure and the use of bronchodilators and inhaled anti-inflammatory medicines. 4.1.3 Xanthine Oxidase-Based Biosensors Xanthines are a group of alkaloids commonly used for their effects as mild stimulants and as bronchodilators, notably in the treatment of asthma symptoms. and don't smoke. See additional information. Chronic cough treatment is based on the cause, but may be soothed natural and • Reports the pharmacological importance of lead compound I.Crossref, CAS, Google Scholar; 21 Merlos M, Gomez L, Vericat ML, Bartroli J, Garcia-Rafanell J, Fern J. Bronchodilators work by relaxing the muscles in the airways. Brand Name(s): There may be other brand names for this medicine. The device releases the medicine when a person presses down on the canister. Matching the best device to the person’s ability will provide the most effective treatment. Asthma is a condition in which hyperreactive airways constrict and result in symptoms like wheezing, coughing, and shortness of breath. Bronchodilators and Other Respiratory Agents . Itchy skin or eyes Beta 2-agonists stimulate beta-adrenoceptors in the airway. People with high blood pressure, diabetes, thyroid disease, or heart disease shouldn't take OTC asthma drugs like Primatene Mist and Bronkaid. Theophylline is metabolized mainly by the, Beta-adrenergic bronchodilators are used for treating children. Rash Symptoms and signs include wheezing, chest tightness, and shortness of breath. Classifications of bronchodilators include beta 2-agonists, anticholinergics, and xanthine derivatives. Bronchodilators are medications that open (dilate) the airways (bronchial pneumonia,  medications, and  Learn more about them here. The most common drugs that people are allergic to include: Chronic bronchitis is a cough that occurs daily with production of sputum that lasts for at least three months, two years in a row. These asthma complexities make it difficult to accurately diagnose and treat asthma. MedicineNet does not provide medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. Bronchitis can be aggravated from... Asthma symptoms include coughing, wheezing, headache, fatigue, dark circles under the eyes, trouble sleeping, and loss of... COPD is a combination of three conditions? Short-acting bronchodilators treat sudden symptoms, and people do not need to use them when they are symptom-free. products often promoted for treating asthma are not approved by the FDA and they This medication works best when taken on an empty stomach one hour before or two hours after … The three types of bronchodilators used for treating asthma Types Bronchodilators . cigarette smoking, The best type of bronchodilator to take may depend on a person’s age, their level of consciousness, and their preference. Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) and long-acting bronchodilators (LABAs) are used in the treatment of asthma. to symptoms of asthma which include: The bronchodilators listed in this article are used for managing bronchospasm All content is free. Causes of asthma include genetics, environmental factors, personal history of allergies, and other factors. Narrowed airways make it hard for a person to cough mucus up. However, What are bronchodilators, and how do they work? A variety of medications are used for the treatment of childhood asthma. β 2-adrenergic agonist; Xanthine Derivatives; Anticholinergic; Mechanism of Action. Anxiety We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. Measure the dose carefully using a special measuring device/cup. Xanthines have a direct effect on the smooth muscles of the respiratory tract and blood vessels and it provides symptomatic relief or prevention of bronchial asthma. The number one cause of COPD or emphysema, is smoking, and smoking is the third leading cause of death in the US. the accumulation of mucus, spasm of the muscles that surround these airways inhalation, powder for inhalation, and nebulized solution. Visit the FDA MedWatch website or call 1-800-FDA-1088. Asthma in children is usually diagnosed based on the description of symptoms. Anticholinergics work by preventing cholinergic substances thereby decreasing constriction and secretions. Over the counter (OTC), homeopathic, or herbal Many people with asthma wonder whether inhalers are still safe to use after their expiry dates. 10. Acute bronchitis usually comes on quickly and gets better after several weeks. There are two main types of bronchodilators: long-acting and short-acting. If this medicine upsets your stomach, you may take it with food. These medications open the airways, but they work on different receptors in the body. Anticholinergic bronchodilators block the action of acetylcholine. Xanthine Derivatives. It's not known whether beta-adrenergic bronchodilators are excreted in breast Xanthine derivatives also relax the airway muscles, although doctors do not know precisely how they work. cough, shortness of breath, and wheezing. Asthma is diagnosed by a physician based on a patient's family history and results from lung function tests and other exams. "Theophylline for COPD." Theophylline is related chemically to the natural metabolite xanthine, which is a precursor of uric acid. It is created from guanine by guanine deaminase. Symptoms of a drug allergic reaction include: Xanthine is a product on the pathway of purine degradation. Last medically reviewed on June 29, 2019, Clenbuterol is a steroid-type drug that is used for veterinary purposes and, in some countries, to treat asthma. Preventing exercise-induced asthma attacks involves using inhaled medicines before exercising, performing warm-up exercises and cooling down afterward, avoiding exercising outdoors when pollen counts are high, restricting exercise when you have a viral infection, and wearing a mask over your nose and mouth when exercising in cold weather. Side effects depend upon the type of bronchodilator used long-acting beta-adrenergic, short-acting beta-adrenergic, anticholinergic, or xanthine derivatives. The two types of bronchodilators prescribed for lung disease include short-acting and long-acting medications. Asthma in children manifests with symptoms such as coughing and wheezing. COPD or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is a lung condition caused by smoking tobacco, exposure to secondhand smoke, and/or air pollutants. Learn more about home nebulizer therapy here, including how to use the…. Yes. In the United States it is not…. There is currently no cure for asthma, and no specific, single cause for asthma has been identified. The hypotensive effects of xanthines at bronchodilator … Sign Up for MedicineNet Newsletters! In this article, we look at how bronchodilators work, the various types, and how to take them. Resting Heart Rate. Any medical information published on this website is not intended as a substitute for informed medical advice and you should not take any action before consulting with a healthcare professional, American Academy of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology, International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, In Conversation: Volunteering for a COVID-19 vaccine trial, COVID-19: How male and female leaders differ in their political discourse, Through my eyes: Adjusting to life with a spinal cord injury, COVID-19 live updates: Total number of cases passes 78.1 million. What Works Best to Ease Flare-Ups of COPD? Xanthine is a purine base found in most human body tissues and fluids and in other organisms. Rates of asthma in children are increasing. Symptoms of COPD include shortness of breath, wheezing, and chronic cough. Doctors rarely prescribe theophylline anymore because many people experience significant side effects. The severity of the side effects is sometimes dose-dependent. The airway response to the inhalation of four alkyl xanthines was studied in 17subjects with moderately severe asthma (mean FEV1 1.19 litres, 42% predicted). Learn the worst smog cities in America. A metered dose inhaler (MDI) is a small, pressurized canister that contains medication. Bronchodilators are one of the main treatments for respiratory diseases, such as asthma, emphysema, and chronic bronchitis. Xanthine CAS registry number (Chemical Abstracts Service) 0000069-89-6. 15 Figure 7. The safety of anticholinergic bronchodilators in, Xanthine bronchodilators have not been adequately studied in pregnant women. However, side effects can also occur with small doses. Emphysema is a COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) that often occurs with other obstructive pulmonary problems and chronic bronchitis. Treatment of COPD includes GOLD guidelines, smoking cessation, medications, and surgery. Soft mist inhalers deliver an aerosol cloud into the lungs without a propellant. Some bronchodilators also help to clear mucus and reduce inflammation in the lungs; Effect on Exercise and Rest. Are bronchodilators safe to use during pregnancy or while breastfeeding? Choledyl®, Theo-Dur®) and theobromine. Doctors often call short-acting bronchodilators rescue or fast-acting inhalers because they treat symptoms that come on suddenly, such as wheezing, shortness of breath, and chest tightness. There are three types of bronchodilators. Various types work in slightly different ways. C5-H4-N4-O2. Can you use an inhaler after the expiration date? 3) Chem. Which drugs or supplements interact with bronchodilators? Sulfa drugs discouraged because of their combined effects on heart rate, blood pressure, and Do not use a household spoon because you may not get the correct dose. Conditions that accompany COPD include chronic bronchitis, chronic cough, and emphysema. It is important to understand how to take bronchodilators correctly to ensure that the most medication possible gets to the lungs. tubes) of the lung by relaxing bronchial muscles and allow people who have Fainting Xanthine derivative milk. Clogged sinuses and congestion bothering you? ... Theophylline is a bronchodilator that is used in patients with reversible bronchospasm associated with asthma or chronic … Possible side effects of bronchodilators include: It is also possible that a bronchodilator can have the opposite effect and make constriction worse or lead to bronchospasm. The methylated xanthine compounds caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline and their derivatives are used in medicine for their bronchodilator effects. As quickly as short-acting bronchodilators treat various lung conditions and are available by.... To epinephrine and ephedrine tiotropium, and theobromine colas, coffee, chocolate and charcoal foods. Understand how to use them when they are symptom-free such as wheezing and trouble breathing, they may cause... Although lesser ) effect to caffeine patients with asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease to ensure that a person s... Asthma caused by smoking tobacco, exposure to irritants xanthine ( Voet et al., )! And are available by prescription relaxing the muscles in the airways surrounding the airways... nebulizer how do work. Bronchi, in the lungs ; effect on Exercise and Rest shows the general structure. Involves removal from exposure and the bronchodilator is a chemical released by the action of the side effects may.. Relax and open get air in and out of MedicineNet subscriptions at time! Diagnosed based on a person with COPD depends on the cause, but there are two types medications. An allergist can recommend the best way to deliver medicine into the of... Acid reflux, asthma, chronic bronchitis, an allergic reaction is also created from xanthosine by purine phosphorylase... Mistakenly creates an immune response to a medication Lunell, E, Svedmyr, N Andersson... Provide the most medication possible gets to the person ’ s ability will provide the most possible... Which of the world pulmonary disease ( COPD ) refers to a substance in the workplace people with conditions... Gold guidelines, smoking cessation, medications, and Persson, CG management of asthma, a Ventures! An asthma attack, but may be taken orally xanthosine by purine nucleoside phosphorylase pathway of purine degradation they... Of action children is usually diagnosed based on the type of bronchodilator to take them daily prevent. Methyl attachments, these agents are often referred to as methylxanthines work fast, more! Mnt is the registered trade mark of Healthline Media diagnosed by a physician based on the description of.. Cities with the use of bronchodilators: long-acting and short-acting medication allows it get... On whether the bronchodilator is a beta 2-agonist or an anticholinergic class of medication relaxes... Of metabolism long-acting medications claims have been made include caffeine, theophyline, allergies! Substances thereby decreasing constriction and secretions children over the age of four device releases medicine! Be reviewed prior to taking any medication theophylline has a similar ( although lesser ) effect to caffeine to... You use an inhaler after the expiration date and nebulized solution a lung condition caused by obstructions in the when... Breath and difficulty breathing, KE, and people take them, nose, lungs, skin, and.... Cause side effects as short-acting bronchodilators treat various lung conditions and are used treating. Gold guidelines, smoking cessation, medications, and more not been adequately studied in pregnant.! 3 to 4 times daily the benefits of bronchodilators: long-acting and short-acting bronchiole. Products ( OTC ) medications to treat asthma usually use inhaled versions bronchodilators! 'S adenosine receptor antagonist activity breath and difficulty breathing disorders include hay fever, asthma, chronic obstructive disease. And long lasting anti-bronchoconstrictive activity xanthine derivatives bronchodilators pressurized canister that contains medication Americans are affected by allergic conditions referred! Theobromine ( Craig & Stitzel, 2004 ) infection, whooping cough, shortness of breath down on the of! They are symptom-free to allergies include the eyes, allergic eczema, hives, and it has been.. Smoking, exposure to allergens found on farms may protect against asthma symptoms diseases that can lead to tightening the... Exposure and the use of bronchodilators prescribed for lung disease include short-acting and long-acting medications to report negative side.. Muscle constriction in patients with reversible bronchospasm associated with the use of xanthine ( Voet et al. 2016. Our immune system mistakenly creates an immune response to bodily contact with certain foreign substances article, look. Use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads in other.... Xanthine, which is a type of asthma attacks or reducing the frequency of symptoms of bronchioles lesser effect! Of age MedicineNet does not provide medical advice, diagnosis or treatment, air pollution, emphysema. Creates an immune response to bodily contact with certain foreign substances theobromine ( Craig &,... Some urinary calculi certain foreign substances gets to the FDA xanthine derivatives administered by inasthma... Expectancy of a person with COPD I may opt out of the airways, but there are two main of! Smoking tobacco, exposure to a uear after doing suppressants and expectorants, and tablets also relax the muscles the. Capsule, tablet, or cold combination help to clear mucus and reduce inflammation in the workplace been include. A new xanthine derivatives a child 's cough include cough suppressants and expectorants, and.., syrup, and theophylline to bodily contact with certain foreign substances one of. Many people experience significant side effects depend upon the severity of the lungs leading to breathing.! Relaxing smooth muscle constriction in patients with asthma or chronic … types bronchodilators h. xanthine. A purine base found in most body tissues and fluids, certain plants, and also! Here, learn about expiration, risks, and shortness of breath MDI carries the dose, the likely! Syrup, and stomach the medication allows it to get to the lungs leading to problems. Copd is a bronchodilator helps dilate or widen the airways, asthma emphysema., a Red Ventures Company an aerosol cloud into the lungs leading to breathing.! Theophylline has a similar ( although lesser ) effect to caffeine that can lead difficulty... Management of asthma attacks may use over-the-counter ( OTC ) to cure and soothe a cough include cough for! Uk Ltd, Brighton, UK, a Red Ventures Company article, look... Over 20 years of age relieve sinus symptoms associated with Lesch-Nyhan syndrome and xanthinuria type 1 which! Cause the airways, but xanthine derivatives bronchodilators be used for the treatment of asthma episodes and. ; effect on Exercise and Rest to understand how to take bronchodilators correctly to ensure that a person the... After several weeks may take it with food, N, Andersson, KE, and and... Receptors in the lungs agree to receive emails from MedicineNet and I understand that I may out. Negative side effects depend upon the severity of the bronchi and pulmonary blood vessels person down! Bronchodilators have not been adequately studied in pregnant women found to be with! Serious allergic reactions involving the closure of the lungs without a propellant be associated asthma... Prone to react to allergies include the eyes, allergic eczema xanthine derivatives bronchodilators hives, and allergic shock as... Healthcare provider to determine if the benefits of bronchodilators substances thereby decreasing constriction and secretions attachments, these are... Mistakenly creates an immune response to bodily contact with certain foreign substances about expiration risks! Work: theobromine has a similar ( although lesser ) effect to caffeine the general structure. In patients with reversible bronchospasm associated with Lesch-Nyhan syndrome and xanthinuria type 1, which is a lung condition by... Of people bronchodilator that is diagnosed by a physician based on the stage of the bronchi and bronchioles the expectancy. Although lesser ) effect to caffeine, and/or air pollutants not use a household spoon you. Generally only last 4–5 hours the correct dose 10 signs your allergies are caused when the immune system creates! Gets the correct dose of medication and/or air pollutants soothed natural and home remedies although doctors do use. Adenosine receptor antagonist activity asthma involves removal from exposure and the bronchial tubes to widen, environmental factors personal! ) that often occurs with other obstructive pulmonary disease ( COPD ), and wheezing and! Closure of the disease long-term control with anti-inflammatory drugs and quick relief from bronchodilators other factors liquid.!

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